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However, of these the ITU remained the strongest and most stable printing union in the United States until the mid 1900's. ,  The Amalgamated Lithographers of America (ALA), representing the lithographic industry, was founded in 1915.Meanwhile, in 1973 the IPPAU merged with the IS&EU, creating the International Printing and Graphic Communications Union (IPGCU). The Graphic Communications International Union and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters officially joined forces on January 1, 2005 after the GCIU membership ratified the merger by a clear majority in late 2004.
As with most industrial unions, membership is highest in regions where laborers are most concentrated.
In 1899 an estimated 26% of wage earners in printing and publishing as a whole were unionized, the percentage by 63% in 1935  . Another factor is industry segment; workers in the newspaper and magazine sectors have always been more organized than those in the book and job printing sectors.
The San Francisco Chronicle was one of many major metropolitan newspapers produced with union labor, and the Allied bug appeared on the front page of every edition until July 2009.
Originally the ITU was a comprehensive industrial union with a membership drawn from all phases of the printing process. The International Brotherhood of Bookbinders (IBB) was founded in 1892.
Technological developments at the end of the 1800's resulted in increased job specialization, which in turn led to segregation of union jurisdiction. The International Printing Pressmen Union of North America (IPPU) was founded in 1889, and by 1897 added the Assistants to form the IPPAU.